The Journey to Emmaus

The Journey to Emmaus, woodcut by Gustave Doré (1832-1883).
“And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself.” (Luke 24: 24)

Who Is Jesus? —
First Sermons and Teachings

Edited by Henry H. Mitchell, 2011–2015.

The following (scroll down to see) is a partial list of New Testament Scriptures recording events during which the identity of Jesus as the long-predicted Messiah (or “Christ”) was taught or explained. As can be seen, it was a major theme, or perhaps more accurately, the foundational theme, of the instruction of Jesus and the apostles.

Old Testament Scriptures which were the basis for these teachings are found in Who Is Jesus? — Details Written Long Before.

Further details are found at Who Is Jesus? — Descriptive Names.

At each line below, click on the link at left to see the context of the verses within their chapters.

Please continue to scroll down…

Reference Description
Luke 4: 16-21 On a Sabbath in the synagogue in Nazareth, Jesus read from the Messianic words of Isaiah 61: 1-2: “The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to set the oppressed free, to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor.” Then he stated, “Today this scripture is fulfilled in your hearing.”
Matthew 5: 17 Jesus, speaking to the crowd at his Sermon on the Mount, said, “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them.”
Matthew 8: 16-17 A day of many miraculous healings by Jesus was concluded as follows: “When evening came, many who were demon-possessed were brought to him, and he drove out the spirits with a word and healed all the sick. This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet Isaiah: ‘He took up our infirmities and bore our diseases.’” (See Messianic reference Isaiah 53: 4.)
Matthew 9: 2-8 Jesus demonstrates through a miraculous healaing while simultaneously teaching that God's authority is vested in the Messianic personage “the Son of Man”: “Some men brought to him a paralyzed man, lying on a mat. When Jesus saw their faith, he said to the man, ‘Take heart, son; your sins are forgiven.’ At this, some of the teachers of the law said to themselves, ‘This fellow is blaspheming!’ Knowing their thoughts, Jesus said, ‘Why do you entertain evil thoughts in your hearts? Which is easier: to say, “Your sins are forgiven,” or to say, “Get up and walk”? But I want you to know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins.’ So he said to the paralyzed man, ‘Get up, take your mat and go home.’ Then the man got up and went home. When the crowd saw this, they were filled with awe; and they praised God, who had given such authority to man.”
Matthew 3: 1-17 Matthew writes regarding John the Baptist, “In those days John the Baptist came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea and saying, ‘Repent, for the kingdom of heaven has come near.’ This is he who was spoken of through the prophet Isaiah: ‘A voice of one calling in the wilderness, “Prepare the way for the Lord, make straight paths for him.“’” (See Messianic reference Isaiah 40: 3.)
John the Baptist described his role as forerunner to the Messiah, “I baptize you with water for repentance. But after me comes one who is more powerful than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire. His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will clear his threshing floor, gathering his wheat into the barn and burning up the chaff with unquenchable fire.”
Matthew 11: 2-10 and Luke 7: 18-27 John the Baptist, in prison, asked Jesus through his disciples for confirmation, “Are you the one who was to come, or should we expect someone else?” Jesus replied by listing Messianic evidences which echoed the above synagogue reading in Nazareth:
  • The blind receive sight;
  • The lame walk;
  • Lepers are cured;
  • The deaf hear;
  • The dead are raised; and
  • The good news is preached to the poor.
Jesus adds a blessing/warning concerning another Messianic evidence: And then Jesus speaks to the crowd and describes John as the prophesied forerunner to the Messiah.
Matthew 16: 13-15 Jesus to Simon Peter and the other disciples, when Simon Peter stated, “You are the Christ [Messiah], the Son of the living God.”: “Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by flesh and blood, but by my Father in heaven. And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock [of revelation that Jesus is the Christ] I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it.”
Mark 8: 31-33 and Luke 9: 22 Immediately after Simon Peter identified Jesus as the Christ, Jesus began teaching the disciples regarding his coming suffering, rejection, death, and resurrection (all written long before by the prophets).
Luke 9: 44-45, Mark 9: 31-32 Nine days later, the day after the Transfiguration, Jesus reminded the disciples again of his coming prophesied rejection/betrayal, death, and resurrection, but the disciples still did not understand.
John 4: 25-26 Jesus talking with the woman at the well in Samaria: The woman said, “I know that Messiah” (called Christ) “is coming. When he comes, he will explain everything to us.” Then Jesus declared, “I who speak to you am he.”
John 5: 31-47 Jesus, talking to the religious leaders in Jerusalem, spoke of John as forerunner, then of the writings of Moses: “You study the Scriptures diligently…These are the very Scriptures that testify about me…If you believed Moses, you would believe me, for he wrote about me. But since you do not believe what he wrote, how are you going to believe what I say?…” (Verses 39, 46, and 47)
John 6: 30-59 In Capernaum, Jesus, pointing to prophetic Messianic Scriptures, responded in several ways to demands and challenges of the religious leaders regarding proof of his identity and origin: “It is written in the Prophets: ‘They will all be taught by God.’” (Verse 45, quoting Isaiah 54: 13)
Luke 18: 31-34 and Mark 10: 32-34 Jesus took the Twelve aside and told them, “We are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written by the prophets about the Son of Man will be fulfilled. He will be delivered over to the Gentiles. They will mock him, insult him and spit on him; they will flog him and kill him. On the third day he will rise again.” The disciples did not understand any of this. Its meaning was hidden from them, and they did not know what he was talking about.
Matthew 21: 23-46 Jesus challenged the chief priests and elders regarding their rejection of him as Messiah, first regarding John the Baptist as the forerunner of the Messiah, and then regarding the rejected cornerstone of the Messianic passage in Psalms 118: 22.
John 8 In a lengthy back-and-forth at the temple, with Pharisees and teachers of the Law, Jesus discussed his Divine and Messianic identity using numerous allusions to prophetic Scriptures. He concluded (verse 58) with “…before Abraham was born, I am,“ thus identifying himself as God who spoke to Moses from the burning bush (see Exodus 3: 14). Jesus' listeners responded by immediately attempting to stone him for what they perceived as blasphemy. Another later discussion at the temple of his Messiahship again resulted in an attempt to stone him for blasphemy (see John 10: 22-39).
Matthew 22: 41-46 Jesus challenged the Pharisees regarding the identity of the Messiah. They accepted the prophecy that he would be the son of David, but did not acknowledge the implication that the Messiah is divine from the Messianic passage Psalms 110: 1.
Luke 22: 37 At the conclusion of the Last Supper, just before Jesus walked with the disciples to the Mount of Olives, he reminded them, “It is written: ‘And he was numbered with the transgressors’ and I tell you that this must be fulfilled in me. Yes, what is written about me is reaching its fulfillment.”
Mark 14: 60-64 (and Matthew 26: 63-66) At Jesus' trial before the Sanhedrin, he asserted his identity as the Messiah, and quoted the Messianic vision of Daniel 7: 13-14: Then the high priest stood up before them and asked Jesus, “Are you not going to answer? What is this testimony that these men are bringing against you?” But Jesus remained silent and gave no answer. Again the high priest asked him, “Are you the Messiah, the Son of the Blessed One?” “I am,” said Jesus. “And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.” The high priest tore his clothes. “Why do we need any more witnesses?” he asked. “You have heard the blasphemy. What do you think?” They all condemned him as worthy of death.
Matthew 27: 11-12 (NASB) At Jesus' trial before the Roman governor Pontius Pilate: …the governor questioned Him, saying, “Are You the King of the Jews?” And Jesus said to him, “It is as you say.”
Luke 24: 13-35 Jesus to two followers on the road to Emmaus: “And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself.” (Verse 24)
Luke 24: 44-49 Jesus, to his followers in Jerusalem immediately after the Emmaus event: “This is what I told you while I was still with you: Everything must be fulfilled that is written about me in the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms.” Then he opened their minds so they could understand the Scriptures. (Verses 44 and 45)
John 2: 12-22 After Jesus had first cleansed the temple of money-changers, the religious leaders had demanded of him a miraculous sign: “Jesus answered them, ‘Destroy this temple, and I will raise it again in three days.’ They replied, ‘It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and you are going to raise it in three days?’ But the temple he had spoken of was his body. After he was raised from the dead, his disciples recalled what he had said. Then they believed the scripture and the words that Jesus had spoken.” (Verses 19-22)
John 12: 12-16 After reporting on Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem and the response of the crowds in the manner of Psalms 118: 25-26 and Zechariah 9: 9, the writer John says: “At first his disciples did not understand all this. Only after Jesus was glorified did they realize that these things had been written about him and that these things had been done to him.” (Verses 16)
Acts 1: 15-26 Shortly after Jesus' ascension, Peter called for the appointment of an apostle to replace Judas, appealing to prophetic writings: “Brothers and sisters, the Scripture had to be fulfilled in which the Holy Spirit spoke long ago through David concerning Judas…” (Verse 16, referring to a number of prophecies)
Acts 2: 14-41 Peter's sermon at Pentecost in Jerusalem was a summary of Messianic prophecies regarding Jesus.
Acts 3: 15-26 Peter to the crowd at the temple gate in Jerusalem after the healing of the man lame from birth: “For Moses said, ‘The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own people; you must listen to everything he tells you.…’ Indeed, all the prophets from Samuel on, as many as have spoken, have foretold these days.” (Verses 22 and 24)
Acts 4: 23-26 After Peter and John were released from jail, the gathered believers' prayer included the following with a quotation from Psalms 2: 1-2 (this link to NASB), “You spoke by the Holy Spirit through the mouth of your servant, our father David: ‘Why do the nations rage and the peoples plot in vain? The kings of the earth rise up and the rulers band together against the Lord and against his Anointed One.’ ” (Verses 25 and 26)
Acts 5: 27-42 When arrested and questioned by the Sanhedrin, Peter and the other apostles answered with clear Messianic references: “The God of our father raised Jesus from the dead [see Psalms 16: 9-10 and Psalms 30: 3] whom you had killed by hanging on a tree [see Deuteronomy 21: 23]. God exalted him to his own right hand [see Psalms 110: 1] . . .” . . . After they were flogged and released, “Day after day, in the temple courts and from house to house, they never stopped teaching and proclaiming the good news that Jesus is the Messiah. ” (Verses 29-31 and 42)
Acts 7: 1-60 Stephen was executed by stoning after making this clear statement regarding Jesus the Messiah: “Was there ever a prophet your ancestors did not persecute? They even killed those who predicted the coming of the Righteous One. And now you have betrayed and murdered him — you who have received the law that was given through angels but have not obeyed it.” (Verses 52 and 53)
Acts 8: 26-39 Philip, with the Ethiopan official, on the road to Gaza: “The eunuch asked Philip, ‘Tell me, please, who is the prophet [Isaiah] talking about, himself or someone else?’ Then Philip began with that very passage of Scripture and told him the good news about Jesus.” (Verses 34 and 35)
Acts 9: 19-22 “Saul spent several days with the disciples in Damascus. At once he began to preach in the synagogues that Jesus is the Son of God. . . . Saul grew more and more powerful and baffled the Jews living in Damascus by proving that Jesus is the Messiah.”
Acts 10: 34-48 Peter explained the identity and message of Jesus to Cornelius the centurion: “. . . All the prophets testify about him . . . ” (Verse 43)
Acts 13: 15-26 and 32-37 Paul's first recorded sermon, in Antioch: “From [David]'s descendants God has brought to Israel the Savior Jesus, as he promised.” (Verse 23)
Acts 17: 2-3 Paul's teaching at Thessalonica: As was his custom, Paul went into the synagogue, and on three Sabbath days he reasoned with them from the Scriptures, explaining and proving that the Messiah had to suffer and rise from the dead. “This Jesus I am proclaiming to you is the Messiah,” he said.
Acts 17: 11 At Berea: “…[The Bereans] received the message with great eagerness and examined the Scriptures every day to see if what Paul said was true.” (Verse 11)
Acts 18: 5 At Corinth: When Silas and Timothy came from Macedonia, Paul devoted himself exclusively to preaching, testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Messiah.
Acts 18: 27-28 Apollos “. . . vigorously refuted his Jewish opponents in public debate, proving from the Scriptures that Jesus was the Messiah.” (Verse 28)
Acts 26: 1-32 Paul, speaking before Agrippa, Bernice, and Festus: “I am saying nothing beyond what the prophets and Moses said would happen — that the Messiah would suffer and, as the first to rise from the dead, would bring the message of light to his own people and to the Gentiles. …King Agrippa, do you believe the prophets? I know you do.” (Verses 22, 23, and 27)
Acts 28: 17-28 Paul, while under house arrest in Rome, spoke to a group of Roman Jews: “He witnessed to them from morning till evening, explaining about the kingdom of God, and from the Law of Moses and from the Prophets he tried to persuade them about Jesus.” (Verse 23)
Luke 1: 1 Luke introduced his Gospel account: “Many have undertaken to draw up an account of the things that have been fulfilled among us….”
John 20: 31 John concluded the major portion of his Gospel account: “…these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.”
Romans 1: 1-4 Paul, in his introduction to his letter to the Romans: “…the gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets in the Holy Scriptures regarding his Son…Jesus Christ our Lord.”
Romans 10: 17 (NASB) Paul, in an extensive discussion of Jews' and Gentiles' varying responses to Jesus, says “So faith comes from hearing, and hearing by the word of Christ.” (An alternative translation given is “by the word concerning Christ,” which indicates the writings of Moses and the Prophets regarding the Messiah.)
Romans 16: 15-26 The conclusion of Paul's letter to the Romans: “…the proclamation of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery hidden for long ages past, but now revealed and made known through the prophetic writings…” (Verses 25 and 26)
I Corinthians 1: 22-24 In Paul's first letter to the Corinthians, he compares the Messiah message with the two more “normal” and expected/accepted types of teaching: “Jews demand signs and Greeks look for wisdom, but we preach Christ crucified: a stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Gentiles, but to those whom God has called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God.”
II Corinthians 2: 2 In Paul's second letter to the Corinthians, he again emphasizes the absolute centrality of the Messiah message: “…For I resolved to know nothing while I was with you except Jesus Christ and him crucified.”
I Peter 1: 10-12 From the introduction of Peter's letter to believers in Asia Minor (Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia): “Concerning this salvation, the prophets, who spoke of the grace that was to come to you, searched intently and with the greatest care, trying to find out the time and circumstances to which the Spirit of Christ in them was pointing when he predicted the sufferings of the Messiah and the glories that would follow. It was revealed to them that they were not serving themselves but you, when they spoke of the things that have now been told you by those who have preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven. Even angels long to look into these things.”
I John 2: 22-23 From John's first letter: “Who is the liar? It is the man who denies that Jesus is the Christ. Such a man is the antichrist — he denies the Father and the Son. No one who denies the Son has the Father; whoever acknowledges the Son has the Father also.”
I John 5: 1-5 Also from John's first letter: “Everyone who believes that Jesus is the Christ is born of God …. Who is it what overcomes the world? Only he who believes that Jesus is the Son of God.”
II John: 7-10 Continuing from the previous two entries, this time from John's second letter: “Many deceivers, who do not acknowledge Jesus Christ as coming in the flesh, have gone out into the world. Any such person is the deceiver and the antichrist.… Anyone who runs ahead and does not continue in the teaching of Christ does not have God; whoever continues in the teaching has both the Father and the Son. If anyone comes to you and does not bring this teaching, do not take him into your house or welcome him.”
I Corinthians 15: 1-28 Paul, in his first letter to the Corinthians, explains that the prophesied Messiah of ages past, the Christ, is also risen from the dead and alive and present today and forever, making it possible for us to live for and with Him today and forever: “And if Christ has not been raised, our preaching is useless and so is your faith.…But Christ has indeed been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep.…”